Bioactive lysophospholipids: role in regulation of aqueous humor outflow and intraocular pressure in the context of pathobiology and therapy of glaucoma.
Homeostasis of aqueous humor (AH) outflow and intraocular pressure (IOP) is essential for normal vision. Impaired AH outflow through the trabecular meshwork (TM) and a resultant elevation in IOP are common changes in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), which is the most prevalent form of glaucoma. Although elevated IOP has been recognized as a definitive risk factor for POAG and lowering elevated IOP remains a mainstay for glaucoma treatment, little is known about the molecular mechanisms, especially external cues and intracellular pathways, involved in the regulation of AH outflow in both normal and glaucomatous eyes. In addition, despite the recognition that increased resistance to AH outflow via the conventional pathway consisting of TM and Schlemm's canal is the main cause for elevated IOP, there are no clinically approved drugs that target the conventional pathway to lower IOP in glaucoma patients. The aim of this article is to briefly review published work on the importance of bioactive lysophospholipids (eg, lysophosphatidic acid and sphingosine-1-phosphate), their receptors, metabolism, signaling, and role in the regulation of AH outflow via the TM and IOP, and to discuss pharmacological targeting of key proteins in the lysophospholipid signaling pathways to lower IOP in glaucoma patients.
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