A prospective feasibility study of respiratory-gated proton beam therapy for liver tumors.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of a respiratory-gated proton beam therapy for liver tumors. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Fifteen patients were enrolled in a prospective institutional review board-approved protocol. Eligibility criteria included Childs-Pugh A/B cirrhosis, unresectable biopsy- proven hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), or metastatic disease (solid tumors only), 1-3 lesions, and tumor size of ≤6 cm. Patients received 15 fractions to a total dose of 45-75 GyE [gray equivalent] using respiratory-gated proton beam therapy. Gating was performed with an external respiratory position monitoring based system. RESULTS: Of the 15 patients enrolled in this clinical trial, 11 had HCC, 3 had ICC, and 1 had metastasis from another primary. Ten patients had a single lesion, 3 patients had 2 lesions, and 2 patients had 3 lesions. Toxicities were grade 3 bilirubinemia-2, grade 3 gastrointestinal bleed-1, and grade 5 stomach perforation-1. One patient had a marginal recurrence, 3 had hepatic recurrences elsewhere in the liver, and 2 had extrahepatic recurrence. With a median follow-up for survivors of 69 months, 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survivals are 53%, 40%, and 33%, respectively. Progression-free survivals are 40%, 33%, and 27% at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory-gated proton beam therapy for liver tumors is feasible. Phase 2 studies for primary liver tumors and metastatic tumors are underway.
Hong, TS; DeLaney, TF; Mamon, HJ; Willett, CG; Yeap, BY; Niemierko, A; Wolfgang, JA; Lu, H-M; Adams, J; Weyman, EA; Arellano, RS; Blaszkowsky, LS; Allen, JN; Tanabe, KK; Ryan, DP; Zhu, AX
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)