Anterior segment photography in pediatric eyes using the Lytro light field handheld noncontact camera.
PURPOSE: To compare anterior segment findings identified in young children using digital photographic images from the Lytro light field camera to those observed clinically. METHODS: This was a prospective study of children <9 years of age with an anterior segment abnormality. Clinically observed anterior segment examination findings for each child were recorded and several digital images of the anterior segment of each eye captured with the Lytro camera. The images were later reviewed by a masked examiner. Sensitivity of abnormal examination findings on Lytro imaging was calculated and compared to the clinical examination as the gold standard. RESULTS: A total of 157 eyes of 80 children (mean age, 4.4 years; range, 0.1-8.9) were included. Clinical examination revealed 206 anterior segment abnormalities altogether: lids/lashes (n = 21 eyes), conjunctiva/sclera (n = 28 eyes), cornea (n = 71 eyes), anterior chamber (n = 14 eyes), iris (n = 43 eyes), and lens (n = 29 eyes). Review of Lytro photographs of eyes with clinically diagnosed anterior segment abnormality correctly identified 133 of 206 (65%) of all abnormalities. Additionally, 185 abnormalities in 50 children were documented at examination under anesthesia. CONCLUSIONS: The Lytro camera was able to document most abnormal anterior segment findings in un-sedated young children. Its unique ability to allow focus change after image capture is a significant improvement on prior technology.
Marcus, I; Tung, IT; Dosunmu, EO; Thiamthat, W; Freedman, SF
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