Development of a novel preclinical model of pneumococcal pneumonia in nonhuman primates.
Pneumococcal pneumonia is a leading cause of bacterial infection and death worldwide. Current diagnostic tests for detecting Streptococcus pneumoniae can be unreliable and can mislead clinical decision-making and treatment. To address this concern, we developed a preclinical model of pneumococcal pneumonia in nonhuman primates useful for identifying novel biomarkers, diagnostic tests, and therapies for human S. pneumoniae infection. Adult colony-bred baboons (n = 15) were infected with escalating doses of S. pneumoniae (Serotype 19A-7). We characterized the pathophysiological and serological profiles of healthy and infected animals over 7 days. Pneumonia was prospectively defined by the presence of three criteria: (1) change in white blood cell count, (2) isolation of S. pneumoniae from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) or blood, and (3) concurrent signs/symptoms of infection. Animals given 10(9) CFU consistently met our definition and developed a phenotype of tachypnea, tachycardia, fever, hypoxemia, and radiographic lobar infiltrates at 48 hours. BALF and plasma cytokines, including granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-1ra, peaked at 24 to 48 hours. At necropsy, there was lobar consolidation with frequent pleural involvement. Lung histopathology showed alveolar edema and macrophage influx in areas of organizing pneumonia. Hierarchical clustering of peripheral blood RNA data at 48 hours correctly identified animals with and without pneumonia. Dose-dependent inoculation of baboons with S. pneumoniae produces a host response ranging from spontaneous clearance (10(6) CFU) to severe pneumonia (10(9) CFU). Selected BALF and plasma cytokine levels and RNA profiles were associated with severe pneumonia and may provide clinically useful parameters after validation.
Kraft, BD; Piantadosi, CA; Benjamin, AM; Lucas, JE; Zaas, AK; Betancourt-Quiroz, M; Woods, CW; Chang, AL; Roggli, VL; Marshall, CD; Ginsburg, GS; Welty-Wolf, K
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