Predictors of late neurological deterioration after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage
Background: Although intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a common form of cerebrovascular disease, little is known about factors leading to neurological deterioration occurring beyond 48 h after hematoma formation. The purpose of this study was to characterize the incidence, consequences, and associative factors of late neurological deterioration (LND) in patients with spontaneous ICH. Methods: Using the Duke University Hospital Neuroscience Intensive Care Unit database from July 2007 to June 2012, a cohort of 149 consecutive patients with spontaneous supratentorial ICH met criteria for analysis. LND was defined as a decrease of two or more points in Glasgow Coma Scale score or death during the period from 48 h to 1 week after ICH symptom onset. Unfavorable outcome was defined as a modified Rankin Scale score of > 2 at discharge. Results: Forty-three subjects (28.9 %) developed LND. Logistic regression models revealed hematoma volume (OR = 1.017, 95 % CI 1.003-1.032, p = 0.019), intraventricular hemorrhage (OR = 2.519, 95 % CI 1.142-5.554, p = 0.022) and serum glucose on admission (OR = 2.614, 95 % CI 1.146-5.965, p = 0.022) as independent predictors of LND. After adjusting for ICH score, LND was independently associated with unfavorable outcome (OR = 4.000, 95 % CI 1.280-12.500, p = 0.017). In 65 subjects with follow-up computed tomography images, an increase in midline shift, as a surrogate for cerebral edema, was independently associated with LND (OR = 3.822, 95 % CI 1.157-12.622, p = 0.028). Conclusions: LND is a common phenomenon in patients with ICH; further, LND appears to affect outcome. Independent predictors of LND include hematoma volume, intraventricular hemorrhage, and blood glucose on admission. Progression of perihematomal edema may be one mechanism for LND. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Sun, W; Sun, W; Pan, W; Kranz, PG; Hailey, CE; Williamson, RA; Laskowitz, DT; James, ML
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