Thioredoxin-mediated denitrosylation regulates cytokine-induced nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation.
S-nitrosylation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) on the p65 subunit of the p50/p65 heterodimer inhibits NF-κB DNA binding activity. We have recently shown that p65 is constitutively S-nitrosylated in the lung and that LPS-induced injury elicits a decrease in SNO-p65 levels concomitant with NF-κB activation in the respiratory epithelium and initiation of the inflammatory response. Here, we demonstrate that TNFα-mediated activation of NF-κB in the respiratory epithelium similarly induces p65 denitrosylation. This process is mediated by the denitrosylase thioredoxin (Trx), which becomes activated upon cytokine-induced degradation of thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip). Similarly, inhibition of Trx activity in the lung attenuates LPS-induced SNO-p65 denitrosylation, NF-κB activation, and airway inflammation, supporting a pathophysiological role for this mechanism in lung injury. These data thus link stimulus-coupled activation of NF-κB to a specific, protein-targeted denitrosylation mechanism and further highlight the importance of S-nitrosylation in the regulation of the immune response.
Kelleher, ZT; Sha, Y; Foster, MW; Foster, WM; Forrester, MT; Marshall, HE
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