Electrospun cartilage-derived matrix scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering.
Macroscale scaffolds created from cartilage-derived matrix (CDM) demonstrate chondroinductive or chondro-inductive properties, but many fabrication methods do not allow for control of nanoscale architecture. In this regard, electrospun scaffolds have shown significant promise for cartilage tissue engineering. However, nanofibrous materials generally exhibit a relatively small pore size and require techniques such as multilayering or the inclusion of sacrificial fibers to enhance cellular infiltration. The objectives of this study were (1) to compare multilayer to single-layer electrospun poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering, and (2) to determine whether incorporation of CDM into the PCL fibers would enhance chondrogenesis by human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). PCL and PCL-CDM scaffolds were prepared by sequential collection of 60 electrospun layers from the surface of a grounded saline bath into a single scaffold, or by continuous electrospinning onto the surface of a grounded saline bath and harvest as a single-layer scaffold. Scaffolds were seeded with hASCs and evaluated over 28 days in culture. The predominant effects on hASCs of incorporation of CDM into scaffolds were to stimulate sulfated glycosaminoglycan synthesis and COL10A1 gene expression. Compared with single-layer scaffolds, multilayer scaffolds enhanced cell infiltration and ACAN gene expression. However, compared with single-layer constructs, multilayer PCL constructs had a much lower elastic modulus, and PCL-CDM constructs had an elastic modulus approximately 1% that of PCL constructs. These data suggest that multilayer electrospun constructs enhance homogeneous cell seeding, and that the inclusion of CDM stimulates chondrogenesis-related bioactivity.
Garrigues, NW; Little, D; Sanchez-Adams, J; Ruch, DS; Guilak, F
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