Diagnosis, evaluation and follow-up of asymptomatic microhematuria (AMH) in adults: AUA guideline.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this guideline is to provide a clinical framework for the diagnosis, evaluation and follow-up of asymptomatic microhematuria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature review using the MEDLINE® database was conducted to identify peer reviewed publications relevant to the definition, diagnosis, evaluation and follow-up for AMH. The review yielded 191 evidence-based articles, and these publications were used to create the majority of the guideline statements. There was insufficient evidence-based data for certain concepts; therefore, clinical principles and consensus expert opinions were used for portions of the guideline statements. RESULTS: Guideline statements are provided for diagnosis, evaluation and follow-up. The panel identified multiphasic computed tomography as the preferred imaging technique and developed guideline statements for persistent or recurrent AMH as well as follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: AMH is only diagnosed by microscopy; a dipstick reading suggestive of hematuria should not lead to imaging or further investigation without confirmation of three or greater red blood cells per high power field. The evaluation and follow-up algorithm and guidelines provide a systematic approach to the patient with AMH. All patients 35 years or older should undergo cystoscopy, and upper urinary tract imaging is indicated in all adults with AMH in the absence of known benign causation. The imaging modalities and physical evaluation techniques are evolving, and these guidelines will need to be updated as the effectiveness of these become available. Please visit the AUA website at http://www.auanet.org/content/media/asymptomatic_microhematuria_guideline.pdf to view this guideline in its entirety.
Davis, R; Jones, JS; Barocas, DA; Castle, EP; Lang, EK; Leveillee, RJ; Messing, EM; Miller, SD; Peterson, AC; Turk, TMT; Weitzel, W; American Urological Association,
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