Induction androgen deprivation plus prostatectomy for stage T3 disease: failure to achieve prostate-specific antigen-based freedom from disease status in a phase II trial.
OBJECTIVES: There is interest in treating prostate cancer with induction androgen deprivation prior to radical prostatectomy. Data on long-term prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based survival analyses among patients treated with neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (NHT) and prostatectomy are limited. In 1991 we instituted a pilot study for T3 disease based on endorectal coil magnetic resonance imaging (eMRI), mandatory negative laparoscopic nodal dissection prior to hormonal manipulation, and prostatectomy followed by pathologic and PSA-based outcome determinations. METHODS: Of 26 patients, 21 had negative laparoscopic lymphadenectomy followed by 4 months of NHT (leuprolide +/- flutamide) prior to radical prostatectomy. eMRI was performed at the time of diagnosis and following hormonal treatment. Serum PSA was determined at 3-month intervals. Prostatectomy specimens were evaluated by 3-mm whole-mount step sections. RESULTS: Prior to prostatectomy, biochemical response was documented in all patients and downsizing was observed by eMRI in 57%. Pathologic downstaging to a lower stage (T2c or lower) was achieved in 48%. However, the actuarial 3-year freedom from biochemical relapse rate was only 24%. CONCLUSIONS: Using laparoscopy to exclude node-positive patients and 4 months of NHT appears to result in pathologic and initial biochemical evidence of regression. These factors have not translated into improved freedom from biochemical relapse among patients with Stage T3 disease treated with NHT and prostatectomy. Recent data strongly suggest a beneficial effect in patients with clinical T2 disease treated with NHT and radical prostatectomy. The NGT and radical prostatectomy approach appeared to offer no clear advantage when compared with PSA-based benchmarks achieved with conformal irradiation or NHT followed by external beam treatment among patients with clinical T3 disease.
Gomella, LG; Liberman, SN; Mulholland, SG; Petersen, RO; Hyslop, T; Corn, BW
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