A pilot clinical trial of intravesical mitomycin-C and external deep pelvic hyperthermia for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

Journal Article (Clinical Trial;Journal Article)

PURPOSE: This paper aims to evaluate the safety and heating efficiency of external deep pelvic hyperthermia combined with intravesical mitomycin C (MMC) as a novel therapy for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled subjects with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) refractory NMIBC to an early phase clinical trial of external deep pelvic hyperthermia (using a BSD-2000 device) combined with MMC. Bladders were heated to 42 °C for 1 h during intravesical MMC treatment. Treatments were given weekly for 6 weeks, then monthly for 4 months. Heating parameters, treatment toxicity, and clinical outcomes were systematically measured. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were enrolled on the clinical trial. Median age was 66 years and 87% were male. Median European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) recurrence and progression scores were 6 and 8, respectively. The full treatment course was attained in 73% of subjects. Effective bladder heating was possible in all but one patient who could not tolerate the supine position due to lung disease. Adverse events were all minor (grade 2 or less) and no systemic toxicity was observed. The most common adverse effects were Foley catheter pain (40%), abdominal discomfort (33%), chemical cystitis symptoms (27%), and abdominal skin swelling (27%). With a median follow-up of 3.18 years, 67% experienced another bladder cancer recurrence (none were muscle invasive) and 13% experienced an upper tract recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: External deep pelvic hyperthermia using the BSD-2000 device is a safe and reproducible method of heating the bladder in patients undergoing intravesical MMC. The efficacy of this treatment modality should be explored further in clinical trials.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Inman, BA; Stauffer, PR; Craciunescu, OA; Maccarini, PF; Dewhirst, MW; Vujaskovic, Z

Published Date

  • May 2014

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 30 / 3

Start / End Page

  • 171 - 175

PubMed ID

  • 24490762

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC4006292

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1464-5157

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.3109/02656736.2014.882021


  • eng

Conference Location

  • England