Histopathologic and immunohistochemical sequelae of bariatric embolization in a porcine model.

Journal Article


To evaluate the histopathologic sequelae of bariatric embolization on the gastric mucosa and to correlate with immunohistochemical evaluation of the gastric fundus, antrum, and duodenum.

Materials and methods

This study was performed on 12 swine stomach and duodenum specimens after necropsy. Of the 12 swine, 6 had previously undergone bariatric embolization of the gastric fundus, and the 6 control swine had undergone a sham procedure with saline. Gross pathologic, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical examinations of the stomach and duodenum were performed. Specifically, mucosal integrity, fibrosis, ghrelin-expressing cells, and gastrin-expressing cells were assessed.


Gross and histopathologic evaluation of treatment animals showed healing or healed mucosal ulcers in 50% of animals, with gastritis in 100% of treatment animals and in five of six control animals. The ghrelin-immunoreactive mean cell density was significantly lower in the gastric fundus in the treated animals compared with control animals (15.3 vs 22.0, P < .01) but similar in the gastric antrum (9.3 vs 14.3, P = .08) and duodenum (8.5 vs 8.6, P = .89). The gastrin-expressing cell density was significantly lower in the antrum of treated animals compared with control animals (82.2 vs 126.4, P = .03). A trend toward increased fibrosis was suggested in the gastric fundus of treated animals compared with controls (P = .07).


Bariatric embolization resulted in a significant reduction in ghrelin-expressing cells in the gastric fundus without evidence of upregulation of ghrelin-expressing cells in the duodenum. Healing ulcerations in half of treated animals underscores the need for additional refinement of this procedure.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Paxton, BE; Alley, CL; Crow, JH; Burchette, J; Weiss, CR; Kraitchman, DL; Arepally, A; Kim, CY

Published Date

  • March 2014

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 25 / 3

Start / End Page

  • 455 - 461

PubMed ID

  • 24462005

Pubmed Central ID

  • 24462005

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1535-7732

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1051-0443

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/j.jvir.2013.09.016


  • eng