Histopathologic and immunohistochemical sequelae of bariatric embolization in a porcine model.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the histopathologic sequelae of bariatric embolization on the gastric mucosa and to correlate with immunohistochemical evaluation of the gastric fundus, antrum, and duodenum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was performed on 12 swine stomach and duodenum specimens after necropsy. Of the 12 swine, 6 had previously undergone bariatric embolization of the gastric fundus, and the 6 control swine had undergone a sham procedure with saline. Gross pathologic, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical examinations of the stomach and duodenum were performed. Specifically, mucosal integrity, fibrosis, ghrelin-expressing cells, and gastrin-expressing cells were assessed. RESULTS: Gross and histopathologic evaluation of treatment animals showed healing or healed mucosal ulcers in 50% of animals, with gastritis in 100% of treatment animals and in five of six control animals. The ghrelin-immunoreactive mean cell density was significantly lower in the gastric fundus in the treated animals compared with control animals (15.3 vs 22.0, P < .01) but similar in the gastric antrum (9.3 vs 14.3, P = .08) and duodenum (8.5 vs 8.6, P = .89). The gastrin-expressing cell density was significantly lower in the antrum of treated animals compared with control animals (82.2 vs 126.4, P = .03). A trend toward increased fibrosis was suggested in the gastric fundus of treated animals compared with controls (P = .07). CONCLUSIONS: Bariatric embolization resulted in a significant reduction in ghrelin-expressing cells in the gastric fundus without evidence of upregulation of ghrelin-expressing cells in the duodenum. Healing ulcerations in half of treated animals underscores the need for additional refinement of this procedure.
Paxton, BE; Alley, CL; Crow, JH; Burchette, J; Weiss, CR; Kraitchman, DL; Arepally, A; Kim, CY
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