3D Archaeology at Çatalhöyük
Digital documentation and visualization in archaeology include digital applications of computer graphic rendering and simulation involving data, models and spatial information produced by different integrated technologies of data capturing, virtual reconstruction and visual communication (Forte 2010; Forte and Kurillo 2010; Forte and Siliotti 1997; Forte 2012). In the last decade the use of digital technologies on archaeological sites is exponentially grown at different scales and for different purposes: GIS, mapping, 3D modeling, remote sensing applications and digital photogrammetry. A really revolutionary approach in the archaeological documentation (on and off site) has been the introduction of image modeling techniques (with software like, for example, Photomodeler and Photoscan) for 3D data recording by DSLR cameras. In short, the archaeological models are generated by the overlapping of a sequence of high-resolution digital photos taken by uncalibrated cameras (Forte 2012). The relevant increasing of digital resolution in SLR cameras (over 15-20 mp) has also allowed the achievement of very interesting results in terms of 3D accuracy, performance and speed of data processing. In fact, the application of entry-level intra-site 3D-technologies has fostered the community of archaeologists to consider 3D not just an “expensive” option, but a very affordable facility, also for the production of additional documentation, such as maps, sections, profiles, volumetric analyses and so on with a high level of accuracy. For example, our tests at Çatalhöyük have demonstrated that in a 3D model of a Neolithic house (around 25 square meters) (generated by the software Photoscan) the accuracy is about 4-5 mm (Forte 2012).
3D imaging in Mediterranean/European Archaeology