Sex differences in quality of life after ischemic stroke.
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare quality of life (QOL) in women and men after ischemic stroke or TIA, and to determine the incremental impact of demographic, socioeconomic, clinical, and stroke-specific effects on longitudinal QOL. METHODS: We assessed QOL in patients with ischemic stroke or TIA at 3 and 12 months postdischarge in the Adherence eValuation After Ischemic stroke-Longitudinal Registry using the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) instrument. We generated multivariable linear regression models to evaluate the association between sex and EQ-5D while sequentially adjusting for sociodemographic, clinical, and stroke-related variables. We also used a proportional odds model to assess sex differences in the change in EQ-5D scores from 3 to 12 months. RESULTS: A total of 1,370 patients were included, 53.7% male, median age 65 years (interquartile range 56-77 years). Women had significantly lower QOL at 3 months (unadjusted EQ-5D 0.81 in women vs 0.84 in men; p < 0.001) and 12 months (0.83 vs men 0.84; p < 0.001) poststroke. After multivariable adjustment for sociodemographic, clinical, and stroke-related factors, women continued to have lower QOL at 3 months (mean difference -0.036; p = 0.003) and at 12 months (mean difference -0.022; p = 0.046). Women fared worse in the dimensions of mobility, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression at 3 and 12 months. There were no sex differences in change in EQ-5D score from 3 to 12 months. CONCLUSION: Women have worse QOL than men up to 12 months after stroke, even after adjusting for important sociodemographic variables, stroke severity, and disability.
Bushnell, CD; Reeves, MJ; Zhao, X; Pan, W; Prvu-Bettger, J; Zimmer, L; Olson, D; Peterson, E
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