“’The doctors said I was normal’: Trauma, the non-narrative, and the Gulag”
Much trauma theory developed in western contexts argues that it is essential for trauma survivors to compose and share their narratives in a supportive atmosphere. This option was not open to Gulag survivors as they risked rearrest or harm to their families if they told their stories. I argue that they found creative, non-verbal ways to work through these memories. Given this evidence, I invite readers to rethink notions of trauma and healing: rather than being universal, they are intimately tied to cultural and historical contexts.