Examining the factor structure of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) in a post-9/11 U.S. military veteran sample.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

The present study examined the structural validity of the 25-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) in a large sample of U.S. veterans with military service since September 11, 2001. Participants (N = 1,981) completed the 25-item CD-RISC, a structured clinical interview and a self-report questionnaire assessing psychiatric symptoms. The study sample was randomly divided into two subsamples: an initial sample (Sample 1: n = 990) and a replication sample (Sample 2: n = 991). Findings derived from exploratory factor analysis (EFA) did not support the five-factor analytic structure as initially suggested in Connor and Davidson's instrument validation study. Although parallel analyses indicated a two-factor structural model, we tested one to six factor solutions for best model fit using confirmatory factor analysis. Results supported a two-factor model of resilience, composed of adaptability- (8 items) and self-efficacy-themed (6 items) items; however, only the adaptability-themed factor was found to be consistent with our view of resilience-a factor of protection against the development of psychopathology following trauma exposure. The adaptability-themed factor may be a useful measure of resilience for post-9/11 U.S. military veterans.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Green, KT; Hayward, LC; Williams, AM; Dennis, PA; Bryan, BC; Taber, KH; Mid-Atlantic Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center Workgroup, ; Davidson, JRT; Beckham, JC; Calhoun, PS

Published Date

  • August 2014

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 21 / 4

Start / End Page

  • 443 - 451

PubMed ID

  • 24586090

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC4147024

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1552-3489

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1177/1073191114524014


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States