Hormonal regulation of salt and water excretion: a mathematical model of whole kidney function and pressure natriuresis.
We present a lumped-nephron model that explicitly represents the main features of the underlying physiology, incorporating the major hormonal regulatory effects on both tubular and vascular function, and that accurately simulates hormonal regulation of renal salt and water excretion. This is the first model to explicitly couple glomerulovascular and medullary dynamics, and it is much more detailed in structure than existing whole organ models and renal portions of multiorgan models. In contrast to previous medullary models, which have only considered the antidiuretic state, our model is able to regulate water and sodium excretion over a variety of experimental conditions in good agreement with data from experimental studies of the rat. Since the properties of the vasculature and epithelia are explicitly represented, they can be altered to simulate pathophysiological conditions and pharmacological interventions. The model serves as an appropriate starting point for simulations of physiological, pathophysiological, and pharmacological renal conditions and for exploring the relationship between the extrarenal environment and renal excretory function in physiological and pathophysiological contexts.
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