Parasite clearance following treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for intermittent preventive treatment in Burkina-Faso and Mali: 42-day in vivo follow-up study.
BACKGROUND: Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is widely used for the control of malaria in pregnancy in Africa. The emergence of resistance to SP is a concern requiring monitoring the effectiveness of SP for IPTp. METHODS: This was an in-vivo efficacy study to determine the parasitological treatment response and the duration of post-treatment prophylaxis among asymptomatic pregnant women receiving SP as part of IPTp in Mali and Burkina-Faso. The primary outcome was the PCR-unadjusted % of patients with parasites recurrence by day 42 defined as a positive diagnostic test by malaria smear at any visit between days 4 and 42. Treatment failure was based on the standard World Health Organization criteria. The therapeutic response was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier curve. RESULTS: A total of 580 women were enrolled in Mali (N=268) and Burkina-Faso (N=312) and followed weekly for 42 days. Among these, 94.3% completed the follow-up. The PCR-unadjusted cumulative risk of recurrence by day 42 was 4.9% overall, and 3.2% and 6.5% in Mali and Burkina Faso respectively (Hazard Ratio [HR] =2.14, 95%, CI [0.93-4.90]; P=0.070), and higher among the primi- and secundigravida (6.4%) than multigravida (2.2%, HR=3.01 [1.04-8.69]; P=0.042). The PCR-adjusted failure risk was 1.1% overall (Mali 0.8%, Burkina-Faso 1.4%). The frequencies (95% CI) of the dhfr double and triple mutant and dhps 437 and 540 alleles mutant genotype at enrolment were 24.2% (23.7-25.0), 4.7% (4.4-5.0), and 21.4% (20.8-22.0) and 0.37% (0.29-0.44) in Mali, and 7.1% (6.5-7.7), 44.9% (43.8-46.0) and 75.3% (74.5-76.2) and 0% in Burkina-Faso, respectively. There were no dhfr 164L or dhps 581G mutations. CONCLUSION: SP remains effective at clearing existing infections when provided as IPTp to asymptomatic pregnant women in Mali and Burkina. Continued monitoring of IPTp-SP effectiveness, including of the impact on birth parameters in this region is essential.
Coulibaly, SO; Kayentao, K; Taylor, S; Guirou, EA; Khairallah, C; Guindo, N; Djimde, M; Bationo, R; Soulama, A; Dabira, E; Barry, B; Niangaly, M; Diakite, H; Konate, S; Keita, M; Traore, B; Meshnick, SR; Magnussen, P; Doumbo, OK; ter Kuile, FO
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