Malaria parasites and red cell variants: when a house is not a home.

Published

Journal Article (Review)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multiple red cell variants are known to confer protection from malaria. Here, we review advances in identifying new variants that modulate malaria risk and in defining molecular mechanisms that mediate malaria protection. RECENT FINDINGS: New red cell variants, including an innate variant in the red cell's major Ca²⁺ pump and the acquired state of iron deficiency, have been associated with protection from clinical falciparum malaria. The polymorphisms hemoglobin C (HbC) and hemoglobin S (HbS) - known to protect carriers from severe falciparum malaria - enhance parasite passage to mosquitoes and may promote malaria transmission. At the molecular level, substantial advances have been made in understanding the impact of HbS and HbC upon the interactions between host microRNAs and Plasmodium falciparum protein translation; remodeling of red cell cytoskeletal components and transport of parasite proteins to the red cell surface; and chronic activation of the human innate immune system, which induces tolerance to blood-stage parasites. Several polymorphisms have now been associated with protection from clinical vivax malaria or reduced Plasmodium vivax density, including Southeast Asian ovalocytosis and two common forms of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. SUMMARY: Red cell variants that modulate malaria risk can serve as models to identify clinically relevant mechanisms of pathogenesis, and thus define parasite and host targets for next-generation therapies.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Taylor, SM; Fairhurst, RM

Published Date

  • May 2014

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 21 / 3

Start / End Page

  • 193 - 200

PubMed ID

  • 24675047

Pubmed Central ID

  • 24675047

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1531-7048

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1097/MOH.0000000000000039

Language

  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States