Gastric bypass surgery enhances glucagon-like peptide 1-stimulated postprandial insulin secretion in humans.
OBJECTIVE: Gastric bypass (GB) surgery is associated with postprandial hyperinsulinemia, and this effect is accentuated in postsurgical patients who develop recurrent hypoglycemia. Plasma levels of the incretin glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are dramatically increased after GB, suggesting that its action contributes to alteration in postprandial glucose regulation. The aim of this study was to establish the role of GLP-1 on insulin secretion in patients with GB. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Twelve asymptomatic individuals with previous GB (Asym-GB), 10 matched healthy nonoperated control subjects, and 12 patients with recurrent hypoglycemia after GB (Hypo-GB) had pre- and postprandial hormone levels and insulin secretion rates (ISR) measured during a hyperglycemic clamp with either GLP-1 receptor blockade with exendin-(9-39) or saline. RESULTS: Blocking the action of GLP-1 suppressed postprandial ISR to a larger extent in Asym-GB individuals versus control subjects (33 ± 4 vs.16 ± 5%; P = 0.04). In Hypo-GB patients, GLP-1 accounted for 43 ± 4% of postprandial ISR, which was not significantly higher than that in Asym-GB subjects (P = 0.20). Glucagon was suppressed similarly by hyperglycemia in all groups but rose significantly after the meal in surgical individuals but remained suppressed in nonsurgical subjects. GLP-1 receptor blockade increased postprandial glucagon in both surgical groups. CONCLUSIONS: Increased GLP-1-stimulated insulin secretion contributes significantly to hyperinsulinism in GB subjects. However, the exaggerated effect of GLP-1 on postprandial insulin secretion in surgical subjects is not significantly different in those with and without recurrent hypoglycemia.
Salehi, M; Prigeon, RL; D'Alessio, DA
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