Recombinant glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36 amide) lowers fasting serum glucose in a broad spectrum of patients with type 2 diabetes.
AIMS: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of various doses of recombinant glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide (rGLP-1) administered subcutaneously (s. c.) via bolus injection or continuous infusion to lower fasting serum glucose (FSG) levels in subjects with type 2 diabetes treated by diet, hypoglycemic drugs, or insulin injection. METHODS: rGLP-1 was administered s. c. to 40 type 2 diabetics currently treated by diet, sulfonylurea (SU), metformin, or insulin in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial; preexisting treatments were continued during the study. In the bolus injection protocol, 32 subjects (8 from each of the 4 treatment groups) received 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 nmol rGLP-1/kg per injection (two injections, two hours apart, beginning one hour after the evening meal) in a randomized order on separate days. In the continuous s. c. infusion protocol, 40 subjects received rGLP-1 at 0.0, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 pmol/kg/min for 10-12 hours overnight starting one hour after the evening meal. Fasting bloods were taken the morning after for glucose, insulin, and glucagon measurements. RESULTS: In the diet, SU, and metformin cohorts, bolus rGLP-1 injections produced modest reductions in mean FSG levels, averaging 17.4 mg/dl (7.3-27.5; 95 % CI) at the highest dose (p < 0.001 vs. placebo). Reductions in FSG levels were greater by continuous infusion at up to 30.3 mg/dl (18.8 - 41.8; 95 % CI; p < 0.001 vs. placebo). The greatest reduction in mean FSG occurred in the SU cohort (up to 43.9 mg/dl, 24.7 - 63.1; 95 % CI; p < 0.001). rGLP-1 infusions resulted in significant increases in fasting plasma insulin and decreases in fasting plasma glucagon levels. There were no serious adverse events; GI-related symptoms were dose-related and more commonly associated with injections. CONCLUSIONS: rGLP-1 (7-36) amide dose-dependently lowered FSG in a broad spectrum of type 2 diabetics when added to their existing treatment. Subcutaneous infusion was more effective than injection, and the combination with SU was more effective than with metformin.
Ehlers, MR; Klaff, LJ; D'Alessio, DA; Brazg, R; Kay, HD; Harley, RE; Mathisen, AL; Schneider, R
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