Invadopodia and basement membrane invasion in vivo.
Over 20 years ago, protrusive, F-actin-based membrane structures, termed invadopodia, were identified in highly metastatic cancer cell lines. Invadopodia penetrate artificial or explanted extracellular matrices in 2D culture conditions and have been hypothesized to facilitate the migration of cancer cells through basement membrane, a thin, dense, barrier-like matrix surrounding most tissues. Despite intensive study, the identification of invadopodia in vivo has remained elusive and until now their possible roles during invasion or even existence have remained unclear. Studies in remarkably different cellular contexts-mouse tumor models, zebrafish intestinal epithelia, and C. elegans organogenesis-have recently identified invadopodia structures associated with basement membrane invasion. These studies are providing the first in vivo insight into the regulation, function, and role of these fascinating subcellular devices with critical importance to both development and human disease.
Lohmer, LL; Kelley, LC; Hagedorn, EJ; Sherwood, DR
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