How copper traverses cellular membranes through the mammalian copper transporter 1, Ctr1.
The copper transporter 1, Ctr1, is part of a major pathway for cellular copper (Cu) uptake in the intestinal epithelium, in hepatic and cardiac tissue, and likely in many other mammalian cells and tissues. Here, we summarize what is currently known about how extracellular Cu travels across the plasma membrane to enter the cytoplasm for intracellular distribution and for use by proteins and enzymes, the physiological roles of Ctr1, and its regulation. As a critical Cu importer, Ctr1 occupies a strategic position to exert a strong modifying influence on diseases and pathophysiological states caused by imbalances in Cu homeostasis. A more thorough understanding of the mechanisms that regulate Ctr1 abundance, trafficking, and function will provide new insights and opportunities for disease therapies.
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)