Discrete improvement in racial disparity in survival among patients with stage IV colorectal cancer: a 21-year population-based analysis.
PURPOSE: Recently, multiple clinical trials have demonstrated improved outcomes in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. This study investigated if the improved survival is race dependent. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Overall and cancer-specific survival of 77,490 White and Black patients with metastatic colorectal cancer from the 1988-2008 Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results registry were compared using unadjusted and multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression as well as competing risk analyses. RESULTS: Median age was 69 years, 47.4 % were female and 86.0 % White. Median survival was 11 months overall, with an overall increase from 8 to 14 months between 1988 and 2008. Overall survival increased from 8 to 14 months for White, and from 6 to 13 months for Black patients. After multivariable adjustment, the following parameters were associated with better survival: White, female, younger, better educated and married patients, patients with higher income and living in urban areas, patients with rectosigmoid junction and rectal cancer, undergoing cancer-directed surgery, having well/moderately differentiated, and N0 tumors (p < 0.05 for all covariates). Discrepancies in overall survival based on race did not change significantly over time; however, there was a significant decrease of cancer-specific survival discrepancies over time between White and Black patients with a hazard ratio of 0.995 (95 % confidence interval 0.991-1.000) per year (p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: A clinically relevant overall survival increase was found from 1988 to 2008 in this population-based analysis for both White and Black patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Although both White and Black patients benefitted from this improvement, a slight discrepancy between the two groups remained.
Castleberry, AW; Güller, U; Tarantino, I; Berry, MF; Brügger, L; Warschkow, R; Cerny, T; Mantyh, CR; Candinas, D; Worni, M
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