'How many calories are in my burrito?' Improving consumers' understanding of energy (calorie) range information.

Journal Article (Journal Article)


Energy (calorie) ranges currently appear on menu boards for customized menu items and will likely appear throughout the USA when menu-labelling legislation is implemented. Consumer welfare advocates have questioned whether energy ranges enable accurate energy estimates. In four studies, we examined: (i) whether energy range information improves energy estimation accuracy; (ii) whether misestimates persist because consumers misinterpret the meaning of the energy range end points; and (iii) whether energy estimates can be made more accurate by providing explicit information about the contents of items at the end points.


Four studies were conducted, all randomized experiments.


Study 1 took place outside a Chipotle restaurant. Studies 2 to 4 took place online.


Participants in study 1 were customers exiting a Chipotle restaurant (n 306). Participants in studies 2 (n 205), 3 (n 290) and 4 (n 874) were from an online panel.


Energy ranges reduced energy misestimation across different menu items (studies 1-4). One cause of remaining misestimation was misinterpretation of the low end point's meaning (study 2). Providing explicit information about the contents of menu items associated with energy range end points further reduced energy misestimation (study 3) across different menu items (study 4).


Energy range information improved energy estimation accuracy and defining the meaning of the end points further improved accuracy. We suggest that when restaurants present energy range information to consumers, they should explicitly define the meaning of the end points.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Liu, PJ; Bettman, JR; Uhalde, AR; Ubel, PA

Published Date

  • January 2015

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 18 / 1

Start / End Page

  • 15 - 24

PubMed ID

  • 24762709

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1475-2727

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1368-9800

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1017/s1368980014000627


  • eng