A reevaluation of the costs of heart failure and its implications for allocation of health resources in the United States.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

The annual cost of heart failure (HF) is estimated at $39.2 billion. This has been acknowledged to underestimate the true costs for care. The objective of this analysis is to more accurately assess these costs. Publicly available data sources were used. Cost calculations incorporated relevant factors such as Medicare hospital cost-to-charge ratios, reimbursement from both government and private insurance, and out-of-pocket expenditures. A recently published Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) HF scheme was used to adjust the HF classification scheme. Costs were calculated with HF as the primary diagnosis (HF in isolation, or HFI) or HF as one of the diagnoses/part of a disease milieu (HF syndrome, or HFS). Total direct costs for HF were calculated at $60.2 billion (HFI) and $115.4 billion (HFS). Indirect costs were $10.6 billion for both. Costs attributable to HF may represent a much larger burden to US health care than what is commonly referenced. These revised and increased costs have implications for policy makers.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Voigt, J; Sasha John, M; Taylor, A; Krucoff, M; Reynolds, MR; Michael Gibson, C

Published Date

  • May 2014

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 37 / 5

Start / End Page

  • 312 - 321

PubMed ID

  • 24945038

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC6649426

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1932-8737

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1002/clc.22260


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States