Genistein inhibits voltage-gated sodium currents in SCG neurons through protein tyrosine kinase-dependent and kinase-independent mechanisms.
Voltage-gated sodium channels play a crucial role in the initiation and propagation of neuronal action potentials. Genistein, an isoflavone phytoestrogen, has long been used as a broad-spectrum inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinases (PTK). In addition, genistein-induced modulation of ion channels has been described previously in the literature. In this study, we investigated the effect of genistein on voltage-gated sodium channels in rat superior cervical ganglia (SCG) neurons. The results show that genistein inhibits Na(+) currents in a concentration-dependent manner, with a concentration of half-maximal effect (IC(50)) at 9.1 +/- 0.9 microM. Genistein positively shifted the voltage dependence of activation but did not affect inactivation of the Na(+) current. The inactive genistein analog daidzein also inhibited Na(+) currents, but was less effective than genistein. The IC(50) for daidzein-induced inhibition was 20.7 +/- 0.1 microM. Vanadate, an inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatases, partially but significantly reversed genistein-induced inhibition of Na(+) currents. Other protein tyrosine kinase antagonists such as tyrphostin 23, an erbstatin analog, and PP2 all had small but significant inhibitory effects on Na(+) currents. Among all active and inactive tyrosine kinase inhibitors tested, genistein was the most potent inhibitor of Na(+) currents. These results suggest that genistein inhibits Na(+) currents in rat SCG neurons through two distinct mechanisms: protein tyrosine kinase-independent, and protein tyrosine kinase-dependent mechanisms. Furthermore, the Src kinase family may be involved in the basal phosphorylation of the Na(+) channel.
Jia, Z; Jia, Y; Liu, B; Zhao, Z; Jia, Q; Liang, H; Zhang, H
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