Dual antiplatelet therapy with or without oral anticoagulation in the postdischarge management of acute coronary syndrome patients with an indication for long term anticoagulation: a systematic review.
Currently, there is a lack of consensus among guidelines for the postdischarge treatment of patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who have a long-term indication for anticoagulation. We conducted a systematic review comparing the safety and effectiveness of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) and triple therapy (TT; defined as DAPT plus an oral anticoagulant) in patients with ACS and a long-term indication for anticoagulation. We searched for clinical studies in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews published between January 1995 and September 2013. Each investigator screened and abstracted data, assessed applicability and quality, and graded the strength of evidence. Meta-analysis of direct comparison was performed when outcomes and follow-up periods were comparable. Fourteen observational studies were identified that contained comparative effectiveness data on DAPT versus TT. No difference in the odds of mortality (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.59-1.83) or stroke (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.38-2.67) at 1-5 years was found between TT and DAPT. Major bleeding at 1-5 years (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.07-2.00) and nonfatal MI at 1-5 years (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.13-3.02) occurred more frequently in patients receiving TT. The results of this systematic review demonstrate that treatment with TT was associated with increased rates of nonfatal MI and major bleeding when compared with treatment with DAPT in the postdischarge management of ACS patients with an indication for oral anticoagulation. Until results of ongoing randomized trials assessing antithrombotic therapies define optimal management strategies, the current analysis suggests using caution when prescribing TT to these patients.
Washam, JB; Dolor, RJ; Jones, WS; Halim, SA; Hasselblad, V; Mayer, SB; Heidenfelder, BL; Melloni, C
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