Porphyromonas gingivalis-mediated Epithelial Cell Entry of HIV-1.
HIV-1 relies on the host's cell machinery to establish a successful infection. Surface receptors, such as CD4, CCR5, and CXCR4 of T cells and macrophages, are essential for membrane fusion of HIV-1, an initiate step in viral entry. However, it is not well defined how HIV-1 infects CD4-negative mucosal epithelial cells. Here we show that there is a specific interaction between HIV-1 and an invasive oral bacterium, Porphyromonas gingivalis. We found that HIV-1 was trapped on the bacterial surface, which led to internalization of HIV-1 virions as the bacteria invaded CD4-negative epithelial cells. Both bacterial and viral DNA was detected in HeLa and TERT-2 cells exposed to the HIV-1-P. gingivalis complexes 2 hr after the initial infection but not in cells exposed to HIV-1 alone. Moreover, epithelial cell entry of HIV-1 was positively correlated with invasive activity of the P. gingivalis strains tested, even when the binding affinities of HIV-1 to these strains were similar. Finally, it was demonstrated that the viral DNA was integrated into the genome of the host epithelial cells. These results reveal a receptor-independent HIV-1 entry into epithelial cells, which may be relevant in HIV transmission in other mucosal epithelia where complex microbial communities can be found.
Mantri, CK; Chen, C; Dong, X; Goodwin, JS; Xie, H
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