Polymorphism of the cystatin C gene in patients with acute coronary syndromes: Results from the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes study.
PURPOSE: Elevated cystatin C concentration is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) events in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Genetic polymorphisms in CST3 influence cystatin C levels, but their relationship to outcomes is unclear. METHODS: We measured cystatin C concentrations in plasma, obtained within 24 hours of admission, in 16,279 acute coronary syndrome patients from the PLATO trial. In 9,978 patients, we performed a genome-wide association study with up to 2.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms. Single nucleotide polymorphisms affecting cystatin C levels were evaluated in relation to the first occurrence of myocardial infarction (MI) or CV death within 1 year using Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: Several single nucleotide polymorphisms were associated with cystatin C levels, most significantly rs6048952 (P = 7.82 × 10(-16)) adjacent to CST3. Median cystatin C concentrations per genotype were 0.85 mg/L (A/A), 0.80 mg/L (A/G), and 0.73 mg/L (G/G). Modeled as additive, the allelic effect, multivariable adjusted, was -0.045 mg/L per G allele for rs6048952. The multivariable adjusted c-statistic regarding the combined end point (CV death or MI) was 0.6735. Adding cystatin C or genotype-adjusted cystatin C levels resulted in c-statistics of 0.6761 and 0.6758, respectively. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios per G allele at rs6048952 in the entire population were 0.94 (95% CI 0.83-1.06) for CV death or MI and 0.88 (95% CI 0.71-1.08) for CV death. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic polymorphisms affect cystatin C concentrations independently of kidney function. However, the polymorphisms were not observed to be associated with outcome, nor did they improve risk prediction or discriminative models.
Akerblom, A; Eriksson, N; Wallentin, L; Siegbahn, A; Barratt, BJ; Becker, RC; Budaj, A; Himmelmann, A; Husted, S; Storey, RF; Johansson, A; James, SK; PLATO Investigators,
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