Genetic diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders: the opportunity and challenge in the genomics era.

Published

Journal Article (Review)

A genetic etiology for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) was first suggested from twin studies reported in the 1970s. The identification of gene mutations in syndromic ASDs provided evidence to support a genetic cause of ASDs. More recently, genome-wide copy number variant and sequence analyses have uncovered a list of rare and highly penetrant copy number variants (CNVs) or single nucleotide variants (SNVs) associated with ASDs, which has strengthened the claim of a genetic etiology for ASDs. Findings from research studies in the genetics of ASD now support an important role for molecular diagnostics in the clinical genetics evaluation of ASDs. Various molecular diagnostic assays including single gene tests, targeted multiple gene panels and copy number analysis should all be considered in the clinical genetics evaluation of ASDs. Whole exome sequencing could also be considered in selected clinical cases. However, the challenge that remains is to determine the causal role of genetic variants identified through molecular testing. Variable expressivity, pleiotropic effects and incomplete penetrance associated with CNVs and SNVs also present significant challenges for genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis.

Full Text

Cited Authors

  • Jiang, Y-H; Wang, Y; Xiu, X; Choy, KW; Pursley, AN; Cheung, SW

Published Date

  • October 2014

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 51 / 5

Start / End Page

  • 249 - 262

PubMed ID

  • 24878448

Pubmed Central ID

  • 24878448

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1549-781X

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1040-8363

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.3109/10408363.2014.910747

Language

  • eng