The economic burden of self-reported and undiagnosed cardiovascular diseases and diabetes on Indonesian households.


Journal Article

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study is: (1) to estimate the current direct out-of-pocket (OOP) and indirect non-communicable diseases (NCD) burden on Indonesian households and (2) to project NCD prevalence and burden in 2020 focusing specifically on hypertension, diabetes, heart problems and stroke. METHODS: This study relies on econometric analyses based on four waves of the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS). RESULTS: In aggregate, of the NCDs studied, heart problems exert the greatest economic burden on households, costing Int$1.56 billion in OOP and indirect burden in 2010. This was followed by hypertension (Int$1.36 billion), diabetes (Int$0.81 billion) and stroke (Int$0.29 billion). The OOP and indirect burden of these conditions is estimated to be Int$4.02 billion. Diabetes and stroke are expected to have the largest proportional increases in burden by 2020; 56.0% for diabetes and 56.9% for stroke to total Int$1.27 billion and Int$0.45 billion respectively. The burden of heart problems in 2020 is expected to increase by 34.4% to total Int$2.09 billion and hypertension burden will increase by 46.1% to Int$1.99 billion. In 2020, these conditions are expected to impose an economic burden of Int$5.80 billion. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, this study demonstrates the significant burden of 4 primary NCDs on Indonesian households. In addition to the indirect burden, hypertension, diabetes, heart problems and stroke account for 8% of the nation's OOP healthcare expenditure, and due to rising disease prevalence and an aging population, this figure is expected to increase to 12% by 2020 without a significant health intervention.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Finkelstein, EA; Chay, J; Bajpai, S

Published Date

  • January 2014

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 9 / 6

Start / End Page

  • e99572 -

PubMed ID

  • 24915510

Pubmed Central ID

  • 24915510

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1932-6203

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1932-6203

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1371/journal.pone.0099572


  • eng