Personalized diagnostics and biosensors: a review of the biology and technology needed for personalized medicine.
Exploiting the burgeoning fields of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics improves understanding of human physiology and, critically, the mutations that signal disease susceptibility. Through these emerging fields, rational design approaches to diagnosis, drug development and ultimately personalized medicine are possible. Personalized medicine and point-of-care testing techniques must fulfill a host of constraints for real-world applicability. Point-of-care devices (POCDs) must ultimately provide a cost-effective alternative to expensive and time-consuming laboratory tests in order to assist health care personnel with disease diagnosis and treatment decisions. Sensor technologies are also expanding beyond the more traditional classes of biomarkers--nucleic acids and proteins--to metabolites and direct detection of pathogens, ultimately increasing the palette of available techniques for the use of personalized medicine. The technologies needed to perform such diagnostics have also been rapidly evolving, with each generation being increasingly sensitive and selective while being more resource conscious. Ultimately, the final hurdle for all such technologies is to be able to drive consumer adoption and achieve a meaningful medical outcome for the patient.
Ahmed, MU; Saaem, I; Wu, PC; Brown, AS
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