Ventilation and anesthetic approaches for rigid bronchoscopy.
Due to growing interest in management of central airway obstruction, rigid bronchoscopy is undergoing a resurgence in popularity among pulmonologists. Performing rigid bronchoscopy requires use of deep sedation or general anesthesia to achieve adequate patient comfort, whereas maintaining oxygenation and ventilation via an uncuffed and often open rigid bronchoscope requires use of ventilation strategies that may be unfamiliar to most pulmonologists. Available approaches include apneic oxygenation, spontaneous assisted ventilation, controlled ventilation, manual jet, and high-frequency jet ventilation. Anesthetic technique is partially dictated by the selected ventilation strategy but most often relies on a total intravenous anesthetic approach using ultra-short-acting sedatives and hypnotics for a rapid offset of action in this patient population with underlying respiratory compromise. Gas anesthetic may be used with the rigid bronchoscope, minimizing leaks with fenestrated caps placed over the ports, although persistent circuit leaks can make this approach challenging. Jet ventilation, the most commonly used ventilatory approach, may be delivered manually using a Sanders valve or via an automated ventilator at supraphysiologic respiratory rates, allowing for an open rigid bronchoscope to facilitate ease of moving tools in and out of the airway. Despite a patient population that often suffers from significant respiratory compromise, major complications with rigid bronchoscopy are uncommon and are similar among modern ventilation approaches. Choice of ventilation technique should be determined by local expertise and equipment availability. Appropriate patient selection and recognition of limitations associated with a given ventilation strategy are critical to avoid procedural-related complications.
Pathak, V; Welsby, I; Mahmood, K; Wahidi, M; MacIntyre, N; Shofer, S
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