The response of the adult and ATD heads to impacts onto a rigid surface.
Given the high incidence of TBI, head injury has been studied extensively using both cadavers and anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs). However, few studies have benchmarked the response of ATD heads against human data. Hence, the objective of this study is to investigate the response of adult and ATD heads in impact, and to compare adult Hybrid III head responses to the adult head responses. In this study, six adult human heads and seven ATD heads were used to obtain impact properties. The heads were dropped from both 15cm and 30cm onto five impact locations: right and left parietal, forehead, occiput and vertex. One set of drops were performed on the human heads and up to four sets were carried out on the ATD heads. For each drop, the head was placed into a fine net and positioned to achieve the desired drop height and impact location. The head was then released to allow free fall without rotation onto a flat aluminum 34 -inch thick platen. The platen was attached to a three-axis piezoelectric load cell to measure the impact force. The peak resultant acceleration, head impact criterion (HIC) and impact stiffness were calculated using the force/time curve and drop mass. No statistical differences were found between the adult human heads and the adult Hybrid III head for 15cm and 30cm impacts (p>0.05). For the human heads, the mid-sagittal impact locations produced the highest HIC and peak acceleration values. The parietal impacts produced HICs and peak accelerations that were 26-48% lower than those from the mid-sagittal impacts. For the ATD heads, the acceleration and HIC values generally increased with represented age, except for the Q3, which produced HIC values up to higher than the other ATD heads. The impact responses of the adult Hybrid III onto different impact locations were found to adequately represent the impact stiffness of human adult head impacts from 30cm and below onto a rigid surface. The Q3 dummy consistently produced the highest HIC values of the ATD heads, and produced higher acceleration and HIC values than the adult human heads as well, which is contrary to neonatal data demonstrating that the head acceleration increases with age.
Loyd, AM; Nightingale, RW; Song, Y; Luck, JF; Cutcliffe, H; Myers, BS; Bass, CD
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