Universal screening for prostate cancer (Pca) using prostate-specific antigen-based testing is not recommended, as the potential harms of screening (overdiagnosis and overtreatment) outweigh potential benefits. The case for Pca screening requires a paradigm shift, which emphasizes the risks of screening over the risks of undetected cancer. Physicians are encouraged to use shared decision making with patients who express an interest in Pca screening, taking into account both the patient's screening preferences and individual risk profile. New models of care informed by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act are intended to assist clinicians in providing recommended preventive services. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.