Dolutegravir, the Second-Generation of Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors (INSTIs) for the Treatment of HIV.
The integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are the newest antiretroviral class in the HIV treatment armamentarium. Dolutegravir (DTG) is the only second-generation INSTI with FDA approval (2013). It has potential advantages in comparison to first-generation INSTI's, including unboosted daily dosing, limited cross resistance with raltegravir and elvitegravir, and a high barrier to resistance. Clinical trials have evaluated DTG as a 50-mg daily dose in both treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced, INSTI-naïve participants. In those treatment-naïve participants with baseline viral load <100,000 copies/mL, DTG combined with abacavir and lamivudine was non-inferior and superior to fixed-dose combination emtricitabine/tenofovir/efavirenz. DTG was also superior to the protease inhibitor regimen darunavir/ritonavir in treatment-naïve participants regardless of baseline viral load. Among treatment-experienced patients naïve to INSTI, DTG (50 mg daily) demonstrated both non-inferiority and superiority when compared to the first-generation INSTI raltegravir (400 mg twice daily) regardless of the background regimen. No phenotypically significant DTG resistance has been demonstrated in INSTI-naïve participant trials. The VIKING trials evaluated DTG's ability to treat persons with HIV with prior INSTI exposure. VIKING demonstrated twice-daily DTG was more efficacious than daily dosing when treating participants receiving and failing first-generation INSTI regimens. DTG maintained potency against single mutations from any of the three major INSTI pathways (Y143, H155, Q148); however, the Q148 mutation with two or more additional mutations significantly reduced its potency. The long-acting formulation of DTG, GSK1265744LA, is the next innovation in this second-generation INSTI class, holding promise for the future of HIV prevention and treatment.
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