Metabolic syndrome and risk of age-related macular degeneration.
PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components with the risk of early- and late-stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: A prospective cohort of individuals aged older than or equal to 49 years were followed up over a period of 10 years in the Blue Mountains Eye Study, Australia. MetS components were measured at baseline (1992-1994), 5-year (1997-1999), and 10-year (2002-2004) follow-ups. Incident cases of early and late AMD were diagnosed using standard photographic grading of retinal images of 2,218 participants at risk. Mixed-effect logistic regression was conducted to explore the relationship between MetS (and its components) with subsequent development of early/late AMD. RESULTS: Over the 10-year follow-up, early AMD developed in 12% and late AMD in 3% of participants at risk. Amongst subjects aged younger than or equal to 70 years, MetS was associated with the incidence of late AMD. Of the five MetS components, obesity, high glucose, and high triglyceride were associated with the increased incidence of late AMD during the 10-year follow-up. There was no evidence of effect of MetS and its components on the risk of early AMD. CONCLUSION: Metabolic syndrome, obesity, high glucose, and high triglycerides were predictors of progression to late AMD. These data provide additional insights into the pathogenesis of AMD.
Ghaem Maralani, H; Tai, BC; Wong, TY; Tai, ES; Li, J; Wang, JJ; Mitchell, P
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