Gender differences in resources and negotiation among highly motivated physician-scientists.

Journal Article (Journal Article)


Resources, including space, equipment, funding, personnel, and protected time, are essential in academic medical careers. Negotiation often plays a key role in the distribution of these resources.


This study explored gender differences in resources, negotiation behaviors, and negotiation outcomes in a sample of career development awardees.


Postal survey of a cohort of 1,708 clinician-researchers with responses from 1,275 (75 % response rate).


Researchers who received NIH K08 or K23 awards between 2006 and 2009.

Main measures

We analyzed gender differences in resources, negotiation behaviors, and negotiation outcomes, using regression models adjusted for race, K award type, K award year, degree, academic rank, specialty, and institutional funding.

Key results

Over one-fifth of respondents reported inadequate access to research space and one-third had asked for increased space or equipment. Perceived adequacy of these physical resources did not differ significantly by gender, but a higher proportion of women reported inadequate access to grants administrators (34.8 %) and statistical support (49.9 %) than men (26.9 %; p = 0.002 and 43.4 %; p = 0.025, respectively). Women were more likely to have asked for reduction in clinical hours (24.1 % vs. 19.3 %; p = 0.02) and to have raised concerns about unfair treatment (50.2 % vs. 38.2 %; p < 0.001). Overall, 42.9 % of women and 35.9 % of men asked for a raise in the two years preceding the survey (p = 0.09), and among those who had asked for increased resources, the likelihood that the request was granted did not differ significantly by gender.


Many career development award recipients report resource needs and negotiate for increased resources. Gender differences in perceived access to research support personnel exist even in this select cohort of K awardees. Institutions should provide appropriate training in negotiation and ensure adequate and equitable distribution of resources to promote academic success.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Holliday, E; Griffith, KA; De Castro, R; Stewart, A; Ubel, P; Jagsi, R

Published Date

  • April 2015

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 30 / 4

Start / End Page

  • 401 - 407

PubMed ID

  • 25112462

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC4370986

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1525-1497

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0884-8734

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1007/s11606-014-2988-5


  • eng