The use of distraction and imagery with children during painful procedures.
The effectiveness of a pediatric pain management program was examined using a multiple case study design. This study examined both the children's pain experience during cancer treatment, as well as their parents' anxiety and behavioral stress. Fourteen children were videotaped while receiving lumbar punctures during an 8-12 month period. Baseline data were obtained at the first of three visits prior to the introduction of relaxation, imagery, and distraction exercises. Self-ratings of child fear and parent anxiety, videotaped observations of child and parent behavior, and child pain ratings were obtained at all three visits. The children's behavioral responses to the procedure varied considerably, but their fear scores were stable and their reports of pain decreased over time. Parents reported high-trait, low-state anxiety scores that were stable over time. They were observed to be very supportive during the procedures. Implications for further research in this area and recommendations for practice are presented.
Broome, ME; Lillis, PP; McGahee, TW; Bates, T
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