Depression in patients with chronic kidney disease on dialysis in Saudi Arabia.
OBJECTIVE: Patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis experience considerable psychological stress due to physical and social changes brought on by illness, increasing the risk of depressive disorder (DD). We examined the prevalence of DD and depressive symptoms, identified treatments for depression, and determined baseline demographic, social/behavioral, physical, and psychological correlates. METHODS: A convenience sample of 310 dialysis patients in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, was screened for DD using the Structured Clinical Interview for Depression and for depressive symptoms using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Established measures of psychosocial and physical health characteristics were administered, along with questions about current and past treatments. Bivariate and multivariate analyses identified independent correlates of DD and symptoms. RESULTS: The prevalence of DD was 6.8 % (major depression 3.2 %, minor depression 3.6 %), and significant depressive symptoms were present in 24.2 % (HDRS 8 or higher). No patients with DD were being treated with antidepressant medication, whereas 28.6 % (6 of 21) were receiving counseling. Being a Saudi national, married, in counseling, or having a history of antidepressant were associated with DD in bivariate analyses. Correlates of depressive symptoms HDRS in multivariate analyses were Saudi nationality, marital status, stressful life events, poor physical functioning, cognitive impairment, overall severity of medical illness, and history of family psychiatric problems. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of DD and depressive symptoms is lower in Saudi dialysis patients than in the rest of the world, largely untreated, and is associated with a distinct set of demographic, psychosocial, and physical health characteristics.
Al Zaben, F; Khalifa, DA; Sehlo, MG; Al Shohaib, S; Shaheen, F; Alhozali, H; Hariri, AO; Ahmad, RG; Kabli, MR; Koenig, HG
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