PCR analysis of egyptian respiratory adenovirus isolates, including identification of species, serotypes, and coinfections.
Eighty-eight adenovirus (Ad) isolates and associated clinical data were collected from walk-in patients with influenza-like illness in Egypt during routine influenza surveillance from 1999 through 2002. Respiratory Ad distributions are geographically variable, and serotype prevalence has not been previously characterized in this region. Serotype identity is clinically relevant because it predicts vaccine efficacy and correlates strongly with both clinical presentation and epidemiological pattern. Species and serotype identities were determined using several well-validated multiplex PCR protocols culled from the literature and supplemented with a few novel primer sets designed to identify rare types. The isolates included common species B1 serotypes (Ad3 and Ad7), common species C serotypes (Ad1, Ad2, and Ad5), the less common species B2 serotype Ad11, and three isolates of the rare species B1 serotype Ad16. Two isolates that appear to be variant Ad16 were also identified. Fifteen coinfections of multiple adenoviral types, primarily AdB/AdC and Ad3/Ad7 dual infections, were detected. The majority of these were verified using redundant PCR tests targeted at multiple genes. PCR is able to resolve coinfections, in contrast to traditional serum neutralization tests. PCR is also comparatively rapid and requires very little equipment. Application of the method allowed an inclusive determination of the serotypes found in the Egyptian respiratory sample set and demonstrated that coinfections are common and may play a previously unrecognized role in adenovirus pathogenesis, evolution, and epidemiology. In particular, coinfections may influence adenoviral evolution, as interserotypic recombination has been identified as a source of emerging strains.
Metzgar, D; Osuna, M; Yingst, S; Rakha, M; Earhart, K; Elyan, D; Esmat, H; Saad, MD; Kajon, A; Wu, J; Gray, GC; Ryan, MAK; Russell, KL
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