Contact toxicity of permethrin-impregnated fabric to Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (Acari: Ixodidae): effects of laundering and exposure and recovery times.
A previous study that documented enhanced host attachment by the camel ticks Hyalomma dromedarii Koch after permethrin exposure prompted a similar investigation of permethrin effects in H. anatolicum excavatum Koch, an Old World hardbacked tick suspected of vectoring human pathogens. Contact toxicity tests were conducted with laboratory-colonized male and female H. a. excavatum of the same age exposed for periods of 5, 10, 30, and 60 min to each of 5 fabric treatments: unwashed/untreated; unwashed and treated; and treated fabric given 1, 2, or 3 laundry cycles of warm-water detergent machine washing, followed by hot-air drying. Fabric was tropical weight 100% cotton military uniform. Treated fabric was impregnated with permethrin at 0.125 mg (AI)/cm2. Contact toxicity was measured immediately after and 24 h after fabric contact as proportion of ticks that attached mouthparts to the skin of a host (rabbit) within a 60-min quest period and time lapse (minutes) between contact with the host and attachment. Attachment response immediately after permethrin contact was exposure time- and wash-dependent in both sexes. Proportion of attaching ticks and times to attachment were comparable in controls and in groups exposed to all permethrin-treated fabrics for 5 or 10 min. Contact periods of 30 and 60 min with 0-wash/treated or 1-wash and treated fabric significantly reduced the frequency of attachment and significantly prolonged mean times to attachment. Compared with low levels of attachment response observed immediately after fabric contact, recovery of attachment response was observed 24 h after exposure in these wash/treatment groups, but inhibition was still evident. Permethrin-induced intoxication was more pronounced in males than females. Mortality 24 h after exposure was only significant among females exposed to 0-wash/treated fabric for 60 min. There was no evidence of permethrin-mediated stimulation of the attachment response in H. a. excavatum.
Fryauff, DJ; Shoukry, MA; Wassef, HY; Gray, G; Schreck, CE
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