Incidence of fovea plana in normal children.
PURPOSE: To characterize the prevalence and features of subclinical foveal hypoplasia detected by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in children. METHODS: Fast macular OCT scans were performed on normal children with normal vision for the development of a normative OCT-3 database; from this data, eyes with no discernable foveal depression were identified. When possible, the ocular imaging was repeated 3 years later using both OCT-3 and spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT). SD-OCT results were compared to age-matched controls. RESULTS: Of the 286 normal children (mean age, 8.6 ± 3.1 years) scanned, 9 (mean age, 8 ± 2.9 years; 6 males) were found to have bilateral shallow foveal depression on OCT-3 imaging, including 8 of 154 white children (5.4%) and 1 child of mixed ethnicity (white/black). Children with shallow foveas (n = 9) had larger average foveal thickness (FT) compared to the cohort of controls (n = 277) with a defined fovea (FT = 231.4 ± 8.8 vs 188.8 ± 25.0, resp. [P < 0.0001]). Mean macular volume did not differ from that of controls. SD-OCT performed 3 years later on 5 of the 9 children with shallow foveal depression showed persistence of the inner macular layers over the foveal center, corresponding to grades 1 or 2 of foveal hypoplasia. The FT was increased compared to 5 age-matched controls with a defined fovea (FT = 294.5 ± 5.1 vs 219.75 ± 5.68 μm, resp. [P = 0.029]). CONCLUSIONS: Up to 3% of children with clinically normal eyes had an anatomically underdeveloped foveal pit bilaterally on OCT.
Noval, S; Freedman, SF; Asrani, S; El-Dairi, MA
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