Vitamin D levels and cognition in elderly adults in China.
To evaluate the association between vitamin D level and cognitive impairment in individuals aged 60 and older.Cross-sectional cohort study.Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey, a community-based cohort study in areas in China where the density of centenarians is exceptionally high.Individuals with mean age of 84.9 ± 12.7 (N = 2,004).Participants' cognitive state was evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Vitamin D was measured in plasma using an enzyme-linked immunoassay.The cross-sectional association between quartiles of plasma vitamin D level and cognitive impairment (MMSE score <18) was modeled using logistic regressions. Plasma vitamin D levels were lower in individuals with cognitive impairment (31.9 ± 15.3 nmol/L) than in those without (45.6 ± 19.6 nmol/L). There was a reverse association between plasma vitamin D and cognitive impairment. After adjusting for age, sex, chronic conditions, smoking and drinking habits, outdoor activities, depression, and activity of daily living limitations, the association remained significant. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for lowest versus highest vitamin D levels was 2.15 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05-4.41) for cognitive impairment, and the multivariable odds ratio associated with a 1-standard deviation decrement in plasma vitamin D was 1.32 (95% CI = 1.00-1.74) for cognitive impairment.Low plasma vitamin D levels were associated with greater odds of cognitive impairment. Further prospective studies in Asian populations are needed to examine the causal direction of this association.
Chei, C-L; Raman, P; Yin, Z-X; Shi, X-M; Zeng, Y; Matchar, DB
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