Exposures, mechanisms, and impacts of endocrine-active flame retardants.


Journal Article (Review)

This review summarizes the endocrine and neurodevelopmental effects of two current-use additive flame retardants (FRs), tris (1,3-dichloro-isopropyl) phosphate (TDCPP) and Firemaster(®) 550 (FM 550), and the recently phased-out polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), all of which were historically or are currently used in polyurethane foam applications. Use of these chemicals in consumer products has led to widespread exposure in indoor environments. PBDEs and their hydroxylated metabolites appear to primarily target the thyroid system, likely due to their structural similarity to endogenous thyroid hormones. In contrast, much less is known about the toxicity of TDCPP and FM 550. However, recent in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that both should be considered endocrine disruptors as studies have linked TDCPP exposure with changes in circulating hormone levels, and FM 550 exposure with changes in adipogenic and osteogenic pathways.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Dishaw, LV; Macaulay, LJ; Roberts, SC; Stapleton, HM

Published Date

  • December 2014

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 19 /

Start / End Page

  • 125 - 133

PubMed ID

  • 25306433

Pubmed Central ID

  • 25306433

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1471-4973

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1471-4892

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/j.coph.2014.09.018


  • eng