The accuracy of a near-infrared spectroscopy cerebral oximetry device and its potential value for estimating jugular venous oxygen saturation.
BACKGROUND: An intriguing potential clinical use of cerebral oximeter measurements (SctO2) is the ability to noninvasively estimate jugular bulb venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2). Our purpose in this study was to determine the accuracy of the FORE-SIGHT(®) (CAS Medical Systems, Branford, CT), which is calibrated to a weighted average of 70% (SjvO2) and 30% arterial saturation, for Food and Drug Administration pre-market approval 510(k) certification by adapting an industry standard protocol, ISO 9919:2005 (www.ISO.org) (used for pulse oximeters), and to evaluate the use of SctO2 and SpO2 measurements to noninvasively estimate jugular venous oxygen saturation (SnvO2). METHODS: Paired blood gas samples from the radial artery and the jugular venous bulb were collected from 20 healthy volunteers undergoing progressive oxygen desaturation from 100% to 70%. The blood sample pairs were analyzed via co-oximetry and used to calculate the approximate mixed vascular cerebral blood oxygen saturation, or reference SctO2 values (refSctO2), during increasing hypoxia. These reference values were compared to bilateral FORE-SIGHT SctO2 values recorded simultaneously with the blood gas draws to determine its accuracy. Bilateral SctO2 and SpO2 measurements were then used to calculate SnvO2 values which were compared to SjvO2. RESULTS: Two hundred forty-six arterial and 253 venous samples from 18 subjects were used in the analysis. The ipsilateral FORE-SIGHT SctO2 values showed a tolerance interval (TI) of [-10.72 to 10.90] and Lin concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) with standard error (SE) of 0.83 ± 0.073 with the refSctO2 values calculated using arterial and venous blood gases. The ipsilateral data had a CCC of 0.81 + 0.059 with TI of [-9.22 to 9.40] with overall bias of 0.09%, and amplitude of the root mean square of error after it was corrected with random effects analysis was 2.92%. The bias and variability values between the ipsilateral and the contralateral FORE-SIGHT SctO2 measurements varied from person to person. The SnvO2 calculated from the ipsilateral SctO2 and SpO2 data showed a CCC ± SE of 0.79 ± 0.088, TI = [-14.93 to 15.33], slope of 0.98, y-intercept of 1.14% with SjvO2 values with a bias of 0.20% and an Arms of 4.08%. The SnvO2 values calculated independently from contralateral forehead FORE-SIGHT SctO2 values were not as correlated with the SjvO2 values (contralateral side CCC + SE = 0.72 ± 0.118, TI = [-14.86 to 15.20], slope of 0.66, and y-intercept of 20.36%). CONCLUSIONS: The FORE-SIGHT cerebral oximeter was able to estimate oxygen saturation within the tissues of the frontal lobe under conditions of normocapnia and varying degrees of hypoxia (with 95% confidence interval of [-5.60 to 5.78] with ipsilateral blood sample data). These findings from healthy volunteers also suggest that the use of the calculated SnvO2 derived from SctO2 and SpO2 values may be a reasonable noninvasive method of estimating SjvO2 and therefore global cerebral oxygen consumption in the clinical setting. Further laboratory and clinical research is required to define the clinical utility of near-infrared spectroscopy determination of SctO2 and SnvO2 in the operating room setting.
Ikeda, K; MacLeod, DB; Grocott, HP; Moretti, EW; Ames, W; Vacchiano, C
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