Cryptococcosis diagnosis and treatment: What do we know now.
Cryptococcosis has evolved into a major invasive fungal disease over the last century. Its primary epidemiology has been focused on three major outbreaks of disease that reflects both changing environmental exposures and growth of host risk factors. The molecular understandings of yeast pathobiology have been bolstered by identification of the yeast's dynamic genomic structures and functions. It is during these new insights into epidemiology and pathobiology that we have also improved our diagnosis of this infection with a new point-of-care, simple, cheap test which utilizes a lateral flow assay for antigen detection. With methods for effective identification of Cryptococcus in the host, the principles for management of this deadly infection include both use of old drugs and new insights into treatment strategies to improve outcome. In this review there are a series of recent insights, opinions, and facts which attempt to summarize our present knowledge base for this deadly fungal central nervous system infection with a particular emphasis on its diagnosis and management.
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