Stress fractures of the foot and ankle in athletes.

Published

Journal Article

Stress fractures of the foot and ankle are a common problem encountered by athletes of all levels and ages. These injuries can be difficult to diagnose and may be initially evaluated by all levels of medical personnel. Clinical suspicion should be raised with certain history and physical examination findings.Scientific and review articles were searched through PubMed (1930-2012) with search terms including stress fractures and 1 of the following: foot ankle, medial malleolus, lateral malleolus, calcaneus, talus, metatarsal, cuboid, cuneiform, sesamoid, or athlete.Clinical review.Level 5.Stress fractures of the foot and ankle can be divided into low and high risk based upon their propensity to heal without complication. A wide variety of nonoperative strategies are employed based on the duration of symptoms, type of fracture, and patient factors, such as activity type, desire to return to sport, and compliance. Operative management has proven superior in several high-risk types of stress fractures. Evidence on pharmacotherapy and physiologic therapy such as bone stimulators is evolving.A high index of suspicion for stress fractures is appropriate in many high-risk groups of athletes with lower extremity pain. Proper and timely work-up and treatment is successful in returning these athletes to sport in many cases. Low-risk stress fracture generally requires only activity modification while high-risk stress fracture necessitates more aggressive intervention. The specific treatment of these injuries varies with the location of the stress fracture and the goals of the patient.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Mayer, SW; Joyner, PW; Almekinders, LC; Parekh, SG

Published Date

  • November 2014

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 6 / 6

Start / End Page

  • 481 - 491

PubMed ID

  • 25364480

Pubmed Central ID

  • 25364480

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1941-0921

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1941-7381

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1177/1941738113486588

Language

  • eng