Perceived barriers and facilitators of using dietary modification for CKD prevention among African Americans of low socioeconomic status: a qualitative study.
BACKGROUND: Factors influencing the use of dietary interventions for modification of CKD risk among African Americans have not been well-explored. We assessed perceived barriers and facilitators of CKD prevention through dietary modifications among African Americans with low socioeconomic status (SES) and at high risk for CKD. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study involving three 90 minute focus groups of low SES (limited education, unemployed, uninsured, or income<$25,000/year) African American residents of Baltimore, Maryland (N=17), who were aged 18-60 years, with no known history of CKD and (1) a family history of end stage renal disease and (2) self-reported diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, HIV or obesity. A trained moderator asked a series of 21 closed and open-ended questions. Group sessions were recorded, transcribed, and two independent investigators reviewed transcripts to identify common themes. RESULTS: Participants' mean (SD) age was 39.8 (12.4) years. Most (59%) were female and earned <$5,000/year (71%). One quarter (24%) had self-reported diabetes and over half had hypertension (53%). Few (12%) perceived their CKD risk as high. Perceived barriers to CKD prevention through dietary change included the expense and unavailability of healthy foods, family member preferences, convenience of unhealthy foods, and inability to break lifelong habits. They identified vouchers for healthy foods, family-based interventions, nutritional counseling and group gatherings for persons interested in making dietary changes as acceptable facilitators of dietary CKD prevention efforts. CONCLUSIONS: Low SES African Americans at high risk for CKD had limited perception of their risk but they identified multiple barriers and potential facilitators of CKD prevention via dietary modifications which can inform future studies and public health interventions.
Johnson, AE; Boulware, LE; Anderson, CAM; Chit-ua-aree, T; Kahan, K; Boyér, LL; Liu, Y; Crews, DC
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