Thromboembolism and bleeding in bladder cancer.
Bladder cancer is a unique disease process in that clinically significant hemorrhage can occur simultaneously with equally significant aberrant clotting. With hematuria the key presenting symptom of bladder cancer, hemorrhage is generally thought to be a component of the natural history of the disease, and to commonly occur during its treatment. However, as those who regularly treat bladder cancer know, the need to address a predisposition to clotting is also very much part of the treatment paradigm. Physicians must be cognizant of the biochemical changes that confer a propensity for both significant bleeding and clotting occurring simultaneously in their patients. Both of these entities remain important issues, and further study is needed to find ways to mitigate and balance the associated risks. Here, we performed a review of the literature, focusing on the concomitant issues of bleeding and venous thromboembolism in both the pre- and post-operative periods in patients with bladder cancer. We formulated a general management approach with respect to these two processes, and we provide direction for further investigation.
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